Month: October 2014

Dyslexia: trouble reading ‘four’

Dyslexia affects about every tenth reader. It shows up when trying to read, especially when reading fast. But it is still not fully clear what words dyslexic readers find particularly hard. So, I did some research to find out, and I published the article today.

Carl Spitzweg: the bookworm

The bookworm (presumably non-dyslexic)

Imagine seeing a new word ‘bour’. How would you pronounce it? Similar to ‘four’, similar to ‘flour’ or similar to ‘tour’? It is impossible to know. Therefore, words such as ‘four’, ‘flour’ and ‘tour’ are said to be inconsistent – one doesn’t know how to pronounce them when encountering them for the very first time. Given this pronunciation challenge, I, together with my co-author Christoph Scheepers, hypothesised that such words would be more difficult for readers generally, and for dyslexic readers especially.

Finding evidence for a dyslexia specific problem is challenging because dyslexic participants tend to be slower than non-dyslexic people in most tasks that they do. So, if you force them to be as quick as typical readers they will seem bad readers even though they might be merely slow readers. Therefore, we adopted a new task that gave people a very long time to judge whether a bunch of letters are a word or not.

It turns out that inconsistent words like ‘four’ slow down both dyslexic and typical readers. But on top of that dyslexic readers never quite reach the same accuracy as typical readers with these words. It is as if the additional challenge these words pose can, with time, be surmounted in normal readers while dyslexic readers have trouble no matter how much time you give them. In other words, dyslexic people aren’t just slow. At least for some words they have trouble no matter how long they look at them.

This is my very first publication based on work I did more than four years ago. You should check out whether the waiting was worth it. The article is free to access here. I hope it will convince you that dyslexia is a real challenge to investigate. Still, the pay-off to fully understanding it is enormous: helping dyslexic readers cope in a literate society.

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Kunert, R., & Scheepers, C. (2014). Speed and accuracy of dyslexic versus typical word recognition: an eye-movement investigation Frontiers in Psychology, 5 DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01129
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Picture: Carl Spitzweg [Public domain or Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

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Old people are immune against the cocktail party effect

Imagine standing at a cocktail party and somewhere your name gets mentioned. Your attention is immediately grabbed by the sound of your name. It is a classic psychological effect with a new twist: old people are immune.

Someone mention my name?

The so-called cocktail party effect has fascinated researchers for a long time. Even though you do not consciously listen to a conversation around you, your own name can grab your attention. That means that unbeknownst to you, you follow the conversations around you. You check them for salient information like your name, and if it occurs you quickly switch attention to where your name was mentioned.

The cocktail party simulated in the lab

In the lab this is investigated slightly differently. Participants listen to one ear and, for example, repeat whatever they hear. Their name is embedded in what they hear coming in to the other (unattended) ear. After the experiment one simply asks ‘Did you hear your own name?’ In a recent paper published by Moshe Naveh-Benjamin and colleagues (in press), around half of the young student participants noticed their name in such a set-up. Compare this to old people aged around 70: next to nobody (only six out of 76 participants) noticed their name being mentioned in the unattended ear.

Why this age difference? Do old people simply not hear well? Unlikely, when the name was played to the ear that they attended to, 45% of old people noticed their names. Clearly, many old people can hear their names, but they do not notice their names if they do not pay attention to this. Young people do not show such a sharp distinction. Half the time they notice their names, even when concentrating on something else.

Focusing the little attention that is available

Naveh-Benjamin and colleagues instead suggest that old people simply have less attention. When they focus on a conversation, they give it their everything. Nothing is left for the kind of unconscious checking of conversations which young people can do so well.

At the next cocktail party you can safely gossip about your old boss. Just avoid mentioning the name of the young new colleague who just started.

 

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Naveh-Benjamin M, Kilb A, Maddox GB, Thomas J, Fine HC, Chen T, & Cowan N (2014). Older adults do not notice their names: A new twist to a classic attention task. Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition PMID: 24820668

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Picture:

By Financial Times (Patrón cocktail bar) [CC-BY-2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)%5D, via Wikimedia Commons

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